Google searching would likely find the links below, but for ease of reference, these are good places to start:
A Student's Guide to Getting Into the Games Industry
Pixel Prospector starting advice!
If you follow the Game Design text link you'll find the Big List of Game Design.
You can't go wrong, and I particularly like Ian Schreiber's courses on Game Design Concepts and Game Balance Concepts.
I teach several game design courses. For those people who enjoy challenge by choice, I encourage you to complete the assignments below. Some are group projects, so either find your own group, or adapt the project to your situation:
Task List Assignment.doc
Dice Game Assignment.doc
Probability Silver.xlsx (and some interactive probability puzzles)
No Materials Assignment.doc
Paper Prototype Assignment.doc
Educational Games Assignment.doc
Games for Change Assignment.doc
For physical books, there are many great options. Here are a few:
Art of Game Design
A Theory of Fun for Game Design
Rules of Play
Game Design Workshop
Challenges for Game Designers
Reality is Broken
These are two fun novels where game designers play a major role:
Ready Player One
Feel free to contact me or view my main site.